Tourisme, immigration et multiculturalisme (appel)
La Rochelle Business school of Tourism et l’Université des Sciences et technologies deKoweit lancent un appel à contribution en vue de la réalisation d’un ouvrage collectif. Les propositions doivent être faites sur la base d’un abstract de 500 mots avant le 15 septembre 2013 auprès des coordinateurs du projet, Omar Mouffakkir et Yvette Reisinger.
Call for paper
Please send extended abstracts (up to 500 words) or intentions for contributions or questions to Omar Moufakkir <email@example.com> or Yvette Reisinger <firstname.lastname@example.org>. All submissions will be reviewed and should include author(s) names, affiliations and contact details.
Abstract submission for chapter proposals: No later than September 15, 2013
Notification of acceptance: September 30, 2013
Growth in migration and tourism are two of the most significant manifestations of globalisation. Despite their relatedness and importance, there has been very little research into their relationship (UNWTO, 2009). According to UWTO, “Migration makes important social and economic contributions to destination countries, culturally enriching their society, enhancing the tourism product and providing labour for the travel, tourism, hospitality and catering sectors” (p. vii). There are, however, also some negative aspects as a result of this relationship, which include ‘brain drain’, reduction in tax revenue in origin countries and wage deflation and social tension in destination countries (UNWTO, 2009). It is the social tension aspects of this phenomenon that are the focus of this edited book. The primary focus of the proposed volume is on the effects of immigration and integration on perceptions and their impacts on destination visitation and travel propensity.
More than a decade ago MacCannell noted that the “rapid implosion of the Third World into the First constitutes a reversal and transformation of the structure of tourism, and in many ways it is more interesting than the first phase of the globalization of culture” (MacCannell, 1999, p. xxii). This implosion has consequences on public opinion about immigration and perceptions about immigrants. Most recently, politicians refer to the growing tensions between natives and immigrants as ‘the failure of multiculturalism’. For example, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, and UK Prime Minister David Cameron have all declared that multiculturalism has failed in their respective countries.
Regardless of the roots of the failure of multiculturalism and its impacts on communities, international terrorism, home grown terror, and the rise of ultra-nationalist sentiments must certainly have new impacts on tourism destinations and markets. The increasing number of immigrants from developing to developed countries and accompanying policies, public opinion, and politically and sensationally charged media contents should no longer go unnoticed in tourism studies, especially that a number of developing countries represent major tourist destinations for international tourists.
For example, it could be assumed that if members of a native group hold negative perceptions about an ethnic minority group at home they are less likely to visit the country of origin of that ethnic group for tourism purposes. Or as Rosello (2001, p. 3) puts it: “I suspect that people who perceive their own cherished homeland as threatened by herds of dangerous foreigners” would want to encounter those herds in millions somewhere else or in their proper turf. On the other hand, we could also ask to what extent encounters with ethnic minority groups stimulate a desire to visit their country of origin. What makes an ethnic minority group more or less attractive than others, and to what extent does the outcome influence destination choice or intention to visit?
On the other hand, how does the echo of the multicultural drama influence the gaze of host communities upon tourists coming from the ‘drama’ country? Are the rules of hospitality changing in tourism as they have changed in immigration? In the Odyssey, Homer says: a guest never forgets a host who treated him kindly! What echo does the multicultural drama have on tourism destinations and the gaze of their people?
For example, what makes Turkey so popular for German tourists despite the rising immigration-related tensions in Germany? What effects does/will this tension have on hospitality and host-guest encounters and gazes in Turkey? What is the situation in France and Algeria? Does perception about immigrant groups activate or discourage intentions to visit migrant sending countries to enjoy tourism? What do British tourists think about visiting Pakistan? How do Pakistanis welcome British tourists? What do Americans think about Mexico, the Mexican people, and the Mexicans in the US? What effects do these perceptions have on tourism participation and consumption? Do people who are less prejudiced towards immigrants travel more to those countries than their counterparts? Consequently, how do people in host communities who have family members overseas react to tourists, based on their interpretation of the drama and the media portrayal of their brothers and sisters ? A few scenarios must emerge.
These assumptions are no exaggeration. The marketing consumer behaviour literature has long recognised the effects of race and ethnicity on buyers’ attitudes and behaviour. For example, Ouellet (2005), like many others, have argued that “consumers’ evaluations of domestic products of varied ethnic origins are significantly correlated with declared levels of racism towards said ethnic groups” (p. 422). This is because perceived incompatibility between groups engenders negative affect. This argument is also supported by the literature about homophily (McPherson, Smith-Lovin and Cook, 2001). Individuals interact with each other when the likelihood of shared similar demographic or psychological characteristics such as beliefs, values, attitudes, aspirations, education, social status, racial group and gender is greater. Perceived compatibility demonstrates the positive effects of homophily (McPheson et al., 2001). Studies have also examined how place identity influences consumers’ behavioral intentions and satisfaction. Place identity refers to a congruency between self-identity and a place. It has been found that consumers look for a balance between whom they are and where they are. Customer comfort has a positive effect on consumer behaviors and attitudes. An anxious consumer is less likely to patronize a business because of the perception of incompatibility.
Multiculturalism has become a controversial topic in many countries. Debates surrounding multiculturalism revolve around the increasing numbers of immigrants, illegal immigration, the rise of neo-Nazism, nationalism, populism or fascism, Islamism, identity crisis, and more recently fiscal crises. The fury of fascists’ sound resonates in slogans in Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and many other countries. The sound and the fury of such a climate must certainly have an effect on tourism consumption, whether with regards to the tourist gaze or to the host gaze.
The marketing literature has extensively discussed consumer behaviour in relation to multiculturalism. Effectively, various studies have identified the importance of the interrelation between multiculturalism, race, ethnicity, marketing and consumer behavior (e.g., Tadajewski, 2012). Tourism studies have yet to seriously engage in such a critical and timely research endeavors (Moufakkir, 2008). The controversial climate of immigration and its social, cultural, economic and geopolitical playgrounds represent a fertile ground for tourism academics to revisit tourism theory, in the light of immigration-integration nexus and its effects on tourism participation and consumption.
This call invites theoretical contributions as well as empirical and case studies to advance our understanding about this phenomenon.
Omar Moufakkir, PhD,
Director Tourism Management Institute, Groupe Sup de Co La Rochelle
La Rochelle Business School of Tourism, FRANCE
Yvette Reisinger, PhD
Professor, College of Business Administration, Gulf University for Science and Technology, KUWAIT
McPherson, Smith-Lovin and Cook. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27: 415-444.
McCannell, D. (1999). The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. First California Paperback. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA.
Moufakkir, O. (2008). Destination image revisited: The Dutch market perceptions of Morocco as a tourism destination. In P. Burns & M. Novelli (Eds.), Tourism development: Growth, myths and inequalities (pp. 85-112). CABI: Wallingford.
Ouellet, J.F. (2005). Consumer racism and its effects on attitudes. Advances in Consumer research, 32: 422-428.
Rosello, M. (2001). Postcolonial hospitality: The immigrant as guest. University Press Stanford, Stanford.
Tadajewski, M. (2012). Character analysis and racism in marketing theory and practice. Marketing Theory, 12(4): 485-508.
UNWTO. (2009). Tourism and migration: Exploring the relationship between two global Phenomena. UNWTO.